2020綠島人權藝術季:背離或被迫遠離於主論述之外的鮮明印記

文/陳飛豪

2020 Green Island Human Rights Art Festival Deviating or Being Left Behind—Lively Marks Outside the Main Discourse

Written by CHEN Fei-Hao

相較於2019年綠島人權藝術季「拜訪流麻溝十五號」,以「地方」、「記憶」與「敘事」為關鍵字,且著重於梳理白色恐怖與綠島地方歷史脈絡的策展方法,今年二度策劃該藝術季的策展人羅秀芝,則是開始選擇向外擴延,以概念性的主題:「邊緣者」作為今年的發想骨幹。談起這個看似抽象,卻又帶有一個明確「背離或被迫遠離於主論述之外」的鮮明想像,若放置於這個紀念國際冷戰下中華民國在台威權統治的不義遺址,亦可切出許多這段歷史敘事的探討方向,可能是中華民族主義下被壓縮的台灣意識、原住民觀點解讀下的白恐歷史、被排擠於主流社會之外的政治犯以及其他第三世界國家社會現況的對照等等,皆是本展以各類觀點邀請觀者介入且多方思考的意圖之一。

原住民觀點下的綠島白恐歷史     

原住民的介入在羅秀芝的兩次策展中都有一定的位置,但相較於去年邀請的藝術家瓦旦·塢瑪以及布拉瑞揚舞團,今年的張恩滿與安聖惠,除了是原住民視角外,也疊合了女性觀點。張恩滿的《眺島》作品中,她邀請了三位原住民青年,演繹了過去監獄中,要求政治犯搬石頭築牆關押自己的情景,錄像作品中,三位演員不斷地在海邊做著搬運石頭的機械性動作,當石頭接給鏡頭外的人之後,這些建材不知搬到哪去,之後馬上接中華民國政府在戒嚴時期拍攝有關於原住民的宣傳影片,片中宣傳著中央政府對「偏遠山胞」的「德政」,但與先前機械性動作的對比,隱喻了這類國家體制收編原住民的歷史脈絡,並將其與政治犯的遭遇對比,讓這兩個相對「邊緣」的族群,在觀者腦中能有彼此對話與激盪的想像。

另外一名安聖惠(峨冷‧魯魯安)的出身背景十分特殊,在魯凱族的身份制度中屬於貴族,一開始她對這類身份制度十分排斥,但不可否認的是,這樣的傳統,其實相較於現代化且以華人思維為主流的台灣社會,卻又是南島語族獨特的文化象徵,而她也在這樣的各種的身份認同與衝擊中,持續找尋屬於自己的定位所在。在本次的《被遺忘的消失》展出作品中,她編織出綠島當地知名的地標將軍岩圖像,並指出這個圖像除了威武的軍人之外,彷彿也是向著遠方的流淚母親,期待透過不同情感投射與視覺符號重構,進而改變對自然景觀的人文想像。

過去長期關注威權時期歷史與自身家族史關聯的藝術家林羿綺,則是在此次展覽中,邀請了原住民歌手斯馬里奧共同創作一首歌曲《不等》,在這次的合作中,以原漢兩族群在現代性後共有的民謠音樂經驗,邀請當下在綠島生活的人們,分別是潛水女教練、監獄管理員、餐廳老闆娘與民宿負責人,以國台日英四種語言,以一種安魂曲的形式,為過去在綠島監獄中,逝去的政治犯們歌唱。而從張恩滿作品中的「揭露」,到安聖惠的「轉化」,到最後林羿綺的「共同歌唱」三者的傳達的意念彷彿也像是一個過程,即原漢兩族群的鴻溝,在過去經歷過的外來政權威權統治的記憶之下,其實也形成了另外一種彼此得以互相理解的共同歷史經驗,邊緣者的共同合作與連結,似乎也慢慢地凝聚出的一個新的文化想像與認同。

國家威權式集體主義與個人情感經驗的表彰     

個人情感經驗的表彰,相對於白恐時期下的國家集體主義,也是這次展覽中被強調的重點,呼應了策展理念中的討論的「邊緣」,其中「愛情」則成了許多參展藝術家們的關注焦點:相較於冰冷的威權政治與社會結構,個人基於本能所發揮出的炙熱情感,反而顯得彌足珍貴且發人省思。其中最明確表現出的作品為李建賢、唐敬雅、廖欣穎、蔡宗育與王遠博《ㄉㄧㄥ·Watch》沈浸式劇場中的《家書》,他們改編與拼湊各種政治受難者家書中的內容,以一男一女的虛擬角色,訴說著被監禁期間,兩者如何互表愛意,以這類大時代下常見的愛情悲劇劇本套路,傳達出人類情感跨越各類歷史情境的共通性。

而引發王鼎曄創作《親愛的,親吻我,然後,再會》這件作品的契機則是他觀察到人權園區中,各種強調國家總體政治方針的標語:「毋忘在莒」、「我愛國家,我愛國旗」、「共產即共慘,臺獨即臺毒」等等,但他卻在各種政治犯的家書與各種書信中,看到了這些人對收信者如家人、朋友或妻子的炙熱情感,當然也是因為在這看不到未來的監禁歲月中,也因此他特地用台文的羅馬拼音寫下「親愛的,親吻我,然後,再會」,以大型霓虹燈管裝置的形式,置於八卦樓的正中央,以這類充滿炙熱情緒的文字,與外面遺留下的國家標語產生極大對比。

這類情緒也出現在泰國藝術團體Jiandyin的《適應中:失落的資本》,這個作品的創作源起於他們對泰國國內緬甸女性移工的觀察,當她們來到泰國工作時,其實心裡都會有一個疑問,即在家鄉的愛人們,在遠距離之下是否還在意這段情感,也因此這件作品中藝術家們設計了一個半人半獸的女性形象,在大海中乘著竹筏以風箏為動力穩定自己的前進速度,最後放出的一首歌,內容就猶如通俗的流行歌曲,一句句的「你還愛我嗎?」訴說出這些女性移工的心聲,與《ㄉㄧㄥ·Watch》和《親愛的,親吻我,然後,再會》相比對,不同政經情境與國界下的邊緣族群彼此呼應,也呼應了策展方希望以白恐歷史為中心,向外擴延與連結的可能性。

在藝術家王亨愉、徐紹恩與黃心慈三人合作的《白色訓導》系列當中的《複耗的公轉》,在這個作品當中一個大型的機械裝置,不斷把中間的白色人頭推向機器邊緣消磨,等到消磨到一定時間之後,便會掉到地上碎裂,再等另一個新的人頭遞補上去,這類國家機器定義出特有主流政治意識並將異己推往邊緣面對消磨甚至死亡的狀態,而在林宏璋的《生命字典:白無常、黑無常、青衣人》也表現出藝術家的父親面臨死亡前,曾受威權統治的經驗,在他過世前仍然存在著揮之不去的可怕陰霾。由此可見,不論是世界各地受到直接迫害的政治受難者還是一般平民,這些不同的國界與族群當中,都存在著類似的集體記憶,而要如何以台灣白恐政治受難者的經驗為中心去連結這樣的「邊緣性」去探索更多論述方向的可能性,相信是本次2020綠島人權藝術季的策展主軸,而這也是在推動轉型正義時藝術介入的最大意義,即我們如何運用藝術的靈活性,以不同論述與切入角度讓觀眾了解這段必須認真面對的黑暗歷史?

Compared to the 2019 Green Island Human Rights Art Festival Visiting No. 15 Liumagou with keywords “place”, “memory” and “narrative”, the same curator Sandy Lo chose to expand the conceptual theme “marginality” for 2020. Although abstract, marginality carries very lively ideas associated with deviation or being expelled from the mainstream. Putting this site of injustice in the historical context of Cold War, the past totalitarianism of the Republic of China has inspired artists’ exploration on issues such as the Taiwanese identity suppressed by the Chinese nationalism, White Terror in the perspective of indigenous peoples, political prisoners excluded by the society, and the comparison with other developing countries with similar situations. The audience was engaged to participate and to contemplate these issues from different angles.

Indigenous Perspective of the White Terror in Green Island——
Sandy Lo did not forget to include indigenous artists for both years of her curatorship. Last year visual artist Watan Uma and Bulareyaung Dance Company were invited, and this year we saw Chang En-Man and Eleng Luluan who provided not only indigenous but also female perspectives. In Chang En-Man’s video “Milky Way”, three young indigenous men acted as the prisoners decades ago, who were ordered to carry rocks to build the walls incarcerating them. When the rocks were handed to people outside of the camera lens, no one knew where they were moved to. Followed was a propaganda clip during the Martial Law period, boasting about how peoples living in remote mountain areas were taken care by the Republic of China.  Compared to the emotionless movements of carrying rocks by the political prisoners, from the video we see that the regime had tried to placate indigenous peoples in the past. Through the artist’s works, the audience imagined the paths of these two marginalized groups coming across.

Eleng Luluan has a unique background, she belongs to the noble class of Lukai. She used to hate her identity, but in Taiwanese society dominated by Chinese culture, the legacy of Austrianesian cultures drove her to find her own position under all kinds of impacts on her identity. In “The Forgotten Vanishing”, Eleng Luluan represented the natural landmark General Rock of Green Island with her fiber weaving. The image in “The Forgotten Vanishing”, the supposedly mighty general, rather looked like a mother in tears looking at a remote place. Through different projections of emotion, the visual elements and natural scenes were reconstructed in our mind.

For a long time Lin Yi-Chi has been looking into her family history under the past totalitarianism, and in this exhibition, she invited indigenous songwriter Simario to compose a song “Waiting for Nothing” with her. In the modernized folk music with both Han and indigenous elements, performers in the roles of a female diving coach, a jailor, a restaurant proprietress and a B&B owner sang in Chinese, Taiwanese, Japanese and English. Their acting was to respond to the singing of the political prisoners who tried to comfort one another and to pacify the traumatized souls.

In short, Chang En-Man’s work “revealed”, then Eleng Luluan’s work “transformed”, and at last in the performance of singing together in Lin Yi-Chi’s work, the ideas they expressed seemed to constitute a process for the Han and indigenous peoples to gradually reach mutual understanding by sharing  memories in the past. The bonds formed between the marginalized are likely to formulate a new identity with new cultural versions.

State Collectivism and Individual Experience——
The contrast between personal expression and the state collectivism during the period of White Terror was accentuated in the artworks for this exhibition, responding to the curatorial theme “marginality”. Affection was felt in the art of many participating artists since in the relentless authoritarian politics and social structure, personal passion became precious and provoking. “D-i-n-g, Watch” by  Lee Chien-Hsien, Tang Ching-Ya, Liao Hsin-Yin, Tzai Tzung-Yu, and Wang Yuan-Po created an immersive theater “Family Letter” to present the scenes mentioned in the letters by political prisoners long time ago. The artists mapped the pieces they found in the letters and rewrote them into a story of a man and a woman expressing their affection for each other during their imprisonment. Their love, although tragic, did not fail to pass on the universal humanity beyond historical plights.

Wang Ding-Yeh’s “My Dear, Kiss Me and Goodbye” was inspired by the many patriotic slogans he saw in the memorial park, like “Forget Not the Days in Ju of Exile”, “I Love My Country, I Love National Flag”, and “Communism Is Doomed, Taiwanese Separatism Is Poisonous”.  But in the letters of the prisoners to their families, the artist felt the passion between the authors and their families. Imagining what the incarcerated would want to say to their beloved without knowing what would happen to their future, Wang Ding-Yeh made characters of Taiwanese in romantic phonetics “My Dear, Kiss Me and Goodbye” with large neon light tubes and hung them in the center of the Bagua Building. The brimming affection is a stark contrast to relentless propaganda.

Similar emotions also appeared in “On Adaptation: The Lost Capital” by Thai artist group Jiandyin. This project came from their observation of the Bermese immigrant workers in Thailand. Away from home, they were not sure the people they loved at home still cared about their relationship. The artists created a figure of half woman and half beast, steadily surfing moving forward in the ocean with a bamboo barge. Before the end, a song with very ordinary lyrics was played, “Do you still love me?” The most common question of these female workers in a foreign country was repeated again and again, echoing the calls of the marginalized groups from the “D-i-n-g, Watch” and “My Dear, Kiss Me and Goodbye”, as well as the curatorial attempt to put the White Terror in the center of the history, and expand its connections outwards.

“White Discipline” by Wang Heng-Yu, Hsu Soul-N, and Huang Hsin-Tze introduced “Consumptive Revolving” for this exhibition. A large machine pushed human heads from the center to the edge and grind them. After a certain time these heads would fall and break, and new heads would be supplied.  A state machine will develop its own political consciousness and push dissidents to the edge, where they are maltreated, even killed after all. Lin Hong-John’s “Biodictionary: White Impermanence, Black Impermanence, And The Man With A Blue Shirt” was about the haunting nightmare of his father, a man lived under the authoritarian rule, before his death. It reminds us that not only the political prisoners, but also the general public, were victims of totalitarianism. It is the case all over the world, of all the groups of people. Looking into the possibilities to centralize the marginalized experiences of the White Terror victims and explore these issues from more diverse angles was the goal of the 2020 Green Island Human Rights Art Festival. And the most meaningful role for art to play for Transitional Justice would be: How to make use of the creative nature of art to help the audience understand the dark past from different discourse strategies.